Thursday, October 31, 2019
Tourism Industry in India - Research Paper Example Segments such as hotels, tour operators, airlines, shipping etc., are significant contributors to this revenue. With lot of imagination and ideas the Indian tourism sector is gathering momentum and is set to have not only large numbers of foreign tourists but also make a big share in the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Theodore Koumelis, in his article on Indian tourism and recent statistics, suggests that the performance of the Indian tourism industry has been very encouraging and has registered an 11% increase in foreign tourist arrivals during 2006. According to Starbucks annual CSR of 2006, Starbucks had then planned to enter the Indian market through a joint venture with an Indian partner RPG Enterprises so as to expand its business. Although many foreign companies see huge potential in Indian market due to huge middle class population, entering into it may not be that lucrative at time due to strict governmental economic policies. Therefore, certain country risks are involved. Almost entire South Asian region has faced severe political instability crisis for many decades with variable consequences. India, by far has been an example not only for South Asian countries but for many developed nations as well. Known as the largest democracy in the world, India has enjoyed continuous trends in its political and economical policies while directly resulting in greater political stability. Thus, tourism and hospitality industry in India has greatly benefited. However, greater stability of such magnitude has resulted in slower shifts and transitions in policy making processes, while negatively affecting the emergence of Indian tourism market for becoming a regional market. Perhaps, this has been the reason why multinational companies did not want to come to India in the earlier stages. Although there is opportunity for domestic and foreign business to grow, there are certain obstacles to these expansions. One of the major obstacles is the entry barriers abound and restrictions imposed on foreign direct investments. The government currently permits on an automatic basis with the exception that they do not already have an existing venture in India in the same field and proposals that may fall outside notified sectional policy/caps. The risk for these new businesses is that regulations are poorly enforced and the restrictions imposed on each zoning and tenancy laws make property ownership among the most expensive in the world. Therefore, the government has ownership of most of the businesses and this lowers the economic growth, making it expensive for other businesses to gain ownership. For Starbucks in India, political and legal risks can include threats to the profitability. These threats derive from the government action or inaction by economic conditions in the marketplace. The threats are included in the action or inaction by political authorities or their agents, rather than changes in supply and demand of goods and services. Therefore, Starbucks is required to open a bank account with an authorized dealer for designated foreign currency. A Foreign Currency Non-Resident (FCNR) account is to be established while converting the foreign exchange to Indian Rupees (Indian Liaison, 2007). India has a tax structure that is well developed to levy taxes divided between
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Future of technology (advantages and disadvantages) Essay From day to day, our world has been changed gradually from one condition to another. Nowadays, technology has advanced in huge leaps and bounds. We cannot imagine the world without technological advances such as computer, televisions, and machines and so on. However there are some advantages and disadvantages of technology. First, technologies play an important role in society because it makes life easier to live on and makes time less consuming. People do not have to do all the hard labor anymore. For example, many people have washing machines, clothes driers and dishwashers, so the amount of energy needed to wash and dry clothes and wash dishes is greatly reduced. Second, medical science is very progressive and saves many innocent lives. Medical treatment has been going well with the help of technology. Nowadays, hospitals use technology as assistance for operations. However, technology also brings harm to our society. The overuse and development of factory industries causes pollution to our world. For example the use of cars and machines causes smoke that affects the quality of our air and destroys our ozone layer and as a result people suffer illnesses like cancer. Another disadvantage is that technologies create financial problems in families because most technologies are expensive. For example people that do not have a washing machine will have to wash clothes by hand which is time consuming. In conclusion, we cannot stop technology from developing in our society. Nowadays, we as people rely on technology everyday to make our lives simpler. Without modern technology our world would be a tough place to live in.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Contributions Of Galileo Galilei To Modern Astronomy Religion Essay Galileos Early Life and Career Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy. He was the oldest son of Vincenzo Galilei, a musician who made important contributions to the theory and practice of music. In the early 1570s, the family moved to Florence where they had lived for generations. In his middle teenager years, Galileo attended the monastery school at Vallombrosa, near Florence, and then in 1581 matriculated at the University of Pisa, where he was to study medicine but he decided to study mathematics instead. In 1585, Galileo left the university without having obtained a degree and for several years he gave private lessons in the mathematics in Florence and Siena. During this period he designed a new form of hydrostatic balance for weighing small quantities. He also began his studies on motion for the next two decades. Galileo discovered some ingenious theorems on gravity which brought him recognition among mathematicians, which resulted in him obtaining the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa in 1589. It was here where he was reported to have shown his students the error of Aristotles belief that speed of fall is proportional to weight, by dropping two objects of different weight simultaneously from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. His contract was not renewed in 1592, probably because he contradicted Aristotelian professors. The same year he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, where he taught geometry, mechanics and astronomy until 1610. It was during this period that Galileo made significant discoveries in both pure fundamental science and practical applied science. It was because of these discoveries that Galileo has been called the father of modern observational astronomy, the father of modern physics, the father of science, and the Father of Modern Science. Galileos Work and Contributions to Modern Astronomy At Padua, Galileo invented a calculating compass for solving mathematical problems. He discovered the law of falling bodies and of the parabolic path of projectiles. He also studied the motions of pendulums and investigated mechanics and the strength of materials. In 1595, Galileo began to support the Copernican theory of the Earth revolving around the Sun (Heliocentric model) rather than the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic theory of the Earth at the centre of the universe (Geocentric model). The Copernican model had supported Galileos tide theory which was based on the motions of the Earth. In the spring of 1609, Galileo heard that a spyglass had been invented in Holland. By trial and error, he quickly figured out the secret of the invention and made his own three-powered spyglass from lenses for sale in spectacle makers shops. Others had done the same, but what set Galileo apart was that he quickly figured out how to improve the instrument, having taught himself the art of lens grinding, and thus, produced increasingly powerful telescopes. galileostele.jpg A Photo of The Original Galileo Telescope By December 1609, Galileo had built a telescope of 20 times magnification and began observing the heavens. He discovered that the moon was not smooth, as had been thought by Aristotle and in fact, there were mountains and craters present on it making it rough and uneven. Moon1.jpg Picture Showing Craters on the Moon In January 1610, Galileo discovered four moons revolving around Jupiter thus proving that not all objects orbit the Earth (which was thought by Aristotle and Ptolemy). These moons are now referred to as Galilean Moons. FG11_16.jpg Galilean Moons of Jupiter These discoveries were tremendous and Galileo described them in a small book called The Sidereal Messenger which he dedicated to Cosimo II de Medici, the grand duke of his native Tuscany. He had also named the moons of Jupiter after the Medici family referring to them as the Sidera Medicea or Medicean Stars. As a reward, Galileo was appointed as mathematician and philosopher of the grand duke of Tuscany. In Florence of that same year, he observed that Venus exhibited a full set of phases similar to that of the moon, which proved that it must orbit the Sun and not the Earth. This observation was among the most important in human history, for it provided the first conclusive observational proof that was consistent with the Copernican system but not the Ptolemaic system. According to Nicholas Copernicus heliocentric model of the solar system, the Sun is at the centre of the solar system with the Earth being just another planet orbiting the Sun. The orbit of Venus around the sun would allow all the phases of Venus to be visible from the Earth. On the other hand, Claudius Ptolemys geocentric model, with Earth at the centre and Venus orbiting Earth, only the crescent and new moon phases of Venus would be observed. venus_orbit.png Ptolemaic View versus Copernican View of Venus Galileos telescopic observations of the crescent, gibbous and full phases of Venus provided empirical and conclusive evidence that the Ptolemaics model was incorrect. Galileo was now confirmed in his belief, that the Sun is the centre of the universe and that the Earth is a planet, as Copernicus had previously argued. Galileos conversion to Copernicanism was a key turning point in the scientific revolution. In 1613, Galileo also observed the Sun through his telescope and saw that there were dark patches present on it, (now referred to as sunspots,) which were considered to be imperfections at the time. sunspots.gif Sunspots on the Sun as Observed by Galileo through his Telescope This was contrary to what Aristotle had proposed in that, the heavenly spheres and bodies were made from a divine, unchanging, perfect substance which he said was the fifth element called aether. (The four elements were earth, fire, air and water.) Aristotle held that this perfect substance, had by nature to execute perfect (uniform, circular) motion. Galileo observed the motion of these sunspots which indicated that the Sun was rotating on an axis which made it possible that the Earth might be rotating on an axis as well, as required by the Copernican model. Thus, if the heavens were in fact not perfect, then the idea of elliptical orbits (according to Kepler) was not so objectionable. These new facts were both unknown to Aristotle and Ptolemy. The Greeks rejected the Heliocentric model partly because they could not detect stellar parallax, which was the apparent shifts in stellar positions when observed from two separate points over the course of the year. Galileo observed with his telescope that the Milky Way resolved into countless individual stars, which helped him argue that the stars were far more numerous and more distant than the Greeks had believed. With this in mind, Galileo was able to conclude that stars were so far away that stellar parallax were undetectable, thus further supporting the Heliocentric model. In 1616, Galileo also discovered the planet Saturn which had seen as a three-body system, which was later found out to be the rings of Saturn but, he was unable to see this because his telescope was not powerful enough, showing them as extensions on either side of the planet. DSC08891-Saturn.jpgPic26-ears.jpg Galileos Sketch of Saturn View of Saturn through Galileos Telescope in 1616 Galileo also conducted experiments using rolling balls to demonstrate that a moving object remains in motion unless a force acts to stop it (now codified as Newtons First Law of Motion). This explained why objects such as birds, falling stones and clouds, which share Earths motion in space, should stay with Earth rather than fall behind as Aristotle had argued. Thus, it was Galileo who had laid the final groundwork in modern astronomy (originally started by Copernicus and continued with Brahe and Kepler) which was used to overthrow the views of Aristotle and Ptolemaic model. It was then the work of Issac Newton who put all the pieces together and demonstrated that the laws that governed the heavens were the same laws that governed motion on Earth. Galileos Writings and Publications In Astronomy Many philosophy professors had scorned Galileos discoveries because they had strongly believed in Aristotles views of perfectly spherical bodies existing in the heavens. In 1610, Sidereus Nuncius (The Starry/Sidereal Messenger) was the first scientific paper to be published based on Galileos telescopic observations which reported about the Galilean Moons, the craters and mountains on the Moons surface, the Milky Way and the numerous stars which it contains and the appearances of planets and fixed stars. In 1613 he published work on the sunspots he discovered called the Letters on Sunspots. This publication also included the full set of phases of Venus as well as the puzzling appearance of the three-body system of Saturn. In 1614 a Florentine priest denounced Galileo from the pulpit because a Pisan professor (in Galileos absence) told the Medici that belief in a moving earth was unorthodox. Galileo wrote a letter on the irrelevance of biblical passages in scientific arguments, stating that the Bible should be adapted to increased knowledge and that no scientific person should be made a critique of the Roman Catholic faith. In early 1616, Copernican books were subjected to censorship by law and that Galileo must no longer hold or defend the concept that the earth moves. Galileo remained silent on the subject for some years until 1623 when he published The Assayer. This book set forth his views on the mathematical formulation of scientific reasoning as well as experiments he conducted in determining longitudes at sea by using his predictions of Jupiters satellites. This book was successful and got support among the higher levels of Christian Churches. In 1624, Galileo went to Rome where he had a few interviews with the Pope (Urban VIII at that time), whom he told about his theory on tides that he developed in 1616. Galileo put forward proof of the annual and diurnal motions of the Earth, whereby he was granted the permission to write a book about the theories of the universe, but was warned to treat Copernican theory only hypothetically. In 1630, the book titled the Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems was allowed to print by the Roman Catholic sensors at Rome, but they altered the title, excluding the words Ptolemaic and Copernican (at the end of the above title). The book was finally published at Florence in 1632. However, in 1633 Galileo was summoned by the Roman Inquisition to stand trial for suspicion of heresy, on the grounds that he had been personally ordered in 1616 not to discuss Copernicanism either orally or in writing and was sentenced to life imprisonment which was commuted to house arrest. The Dialogue was ordered to be burned. galilei_image01.jpg Painting depicts Galileo standing trial in Rome for his belief in Copernicanism In 1638 at Leiden, Galileos final book was published entitled the Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, which reviewed and refined his earlier studies of motion and mechanics. This book led Newton to the law of gravitation that linked Keplers laws with Galileos physics. Conclusion Galileo became blind before his last book was published. He died at his home in Arcetri, near Florence on January 8th 1642. It was not until 1979 an investigation into Galileos condemnation called for a reversal by Pope John Paul II and in October 1992, a papal commission acknowledged the Churchs error. Fifty years after his death the city of Florence erected a monument in Galileos honour in Santa Croce. 800px-Tomb_of_Galileo_Galilei.jpg Tomb of Galileo in Santa Croce In December 2008, during the events to mark the 400th anniversary of Galileos telescopic observations, Pope Benedict XVI praised his contributions to astronomy. Galileo still remains one of the most important scientists of his time and even though he had a difficult lifetime and personally suffered because of his ideas, he is greatly appreciated today.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Chinese Rice Farming Works Cited Not Included An ancient Chinese proverb reads, Ã¢â¬Å"Without rice, even the cleverest housewife cannot cook.Ã¢â¬ In a comical manner, this proverb illustrates an important point - rice serves an essential function to the people of China. As the pivotal mediator between the Chinese people and the rice they consume, the weather, climate, and environment has played an integral role in riceÃ¢â¬â¢s production and utility, as well as the importance it plays within the culture. Ironically, something so integral to Chinese society may not indeed be sustainable for the future. Before discussing the important inter-dynamics between rice, people and the environment, it is necessary to briefly review the importance of rice in China. Rice is the staple food source of China, a country containing over 1.3 billion residents. Chinese officials report that the per capita energy intake of food is around 2,600 calories, where Ã ¾ of their protein and 5/6 of their caloric intake come from grain Ã¢â¬â primarily rice.28 The government has gone to great lengths to feed their ever burgeoning population and it is a monumental undertaking. China produces 35% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s total rice production, ranging from 171 million to 191 million metric tons annually over the past decade.29 Chinese mythology has expounded upon many of the critical elements that pertain to human existence: the division of the heavens and the earth, the creation of man, and the origins of rice. According to legend, riceÃ¢â¬â¢s origin is begins during the aftermath of a devastating storm thousands of years ago.30 The lands and rivers were flooded and food sources were scarce; every type of plant life was destroyed and no animals could be found. Seeing the hardships the... ...the fields during the monsoons would be almost impossible, and highly expensive. Other proposed remedies have their own specific costs and benefits, but as of yet no comprehensive, realistic solution has been developed.37 Until this occurs, the situation in China, and the world at large, gets worse by the day. At this point in time, there are no signs suggesting that China will abandon their Ã¢â¬Å"rice cultureÃ¢â¬ , and weather and climate will both influence and be impacted by rice production for years to come. Scientific research is advancing by the day and we will eventually find a solution to this rice methane problem. Hopefully, this paper has been able to illustrate how important the dynamic relationship between rice, the weather and climate, and Chinese society, and how a subject that on surface may appear to be dull to some can be rather exciting and educational.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
This case mainly tells us several problems of a company named Family Medical Group. Bill Maron is the president of the company. The original company called Family Medical Distribution which was created by the grandfather of BillÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Helen. After her grandfather was dead suddenly in 1968, Bill was persuaded by his father-in-law and purchased this company. At the beginning of the first few years, it was a tough time to Bill. The organizational structure of the company was very simple that he just had eight employees. He spent countless hours on the road talking to the customers and suppliers. Moreover, the surroundings were also rough. All the departments are in a single office including Bill. But all the tough things cannot stop Bill. Due to the tradition that all the staffs treated the company like their family and the efforts Bill had made, the he became to realize measured success. The company expanded into the rest of Ontario and by 1984, the company had become a nationwide distributor. Hundreds of employees are working in the company now. In addition, Bill is pursuing to invent the new product to change the current situation. Though a few yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ effort, he was successful in the development of auxiliary tool of asthmatic bronchitis. This is a big success that the invention called AeroTube was launched in more than 50 countries and another new division was founded under the name Family Medical Manufacturing. However, with the growth of the profit, the scope of the company is growing as well. Thus, some problems are appeared at this time. For the external aspect, the government made the policy to squeezing the profits out of Family Medical Distribution. The cutbacks of government means the hundreds of hospitals across the country have closed and the others have been forced to reduce their number of beds. For the internal aspect, both companies have made some strategies mistakes which resulted in the loss of some key staff to the competition. Thus, Bill encountered with the dilemma and he want to hire some people as the vice president and the director of the HR department to cope with the problems instead of confronting those by himself. There are several problems that Bill should solve. First, the company has to change because of the pressure that the external atmosphere gives. Second, the person that Bill hired may be not the right people for the company and the staffs. Third, some of the experienced staffs are Ã¢â¬Å"lazyÃ¢â¬ , they intend to retire from the company. The last but not the least, the supervisors make their decision of promoting staff with injustice. Here are the recommendations. Firstly, Bill should hire some experienced engineers who have the real knowledge on this area and can create the innovative inventions to help Bill to gain more profit and remain competitive in the increasingly smaller market. Secondly, Bill should hire the right person to be the supervisors. For example, Nancy is ready to be the director of HR. Nevertheless, we should pay attention to a detail that when she is working, she closed her door and turned off her phone. This is not proper to a HR director. This post should be more responsible to communicate with people as possible as she can. Thirdly, some staffs want to retire from the company and not make their efforts to the company because they are the grand old man in this company. Bill should motivate them and recall their original enthusiasm. The last but not the least, Bill should consider the position of Mark again. He promised to Barb that she would be the new Office Manager before the opening was posted. It is unfair to Laura who is the Senior Administrator. She is very responsible to the company and contributed a lot. When she knew the truth, she submitted the resignation and wanted to leave the company. Bill should to hire another person who is impartial and optimize the organizational structure.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Rights and Liberties in the Constitution The US Constitution guarantees a number of rights and liberties to US citizens.Ã The right to trial by jury in criminal cases is guaranteed. (Article 3, Section 2)The citizens of each state are entitled to the privileges and immunities of the citizens of every other state. (Article 4, Section 2)The requirement of a Writ of habeas corpus may not be suspended except during invasion or rebellion. (Article 1, Section 9)Neither Congress nor the states can pass a bill of attainder.Ã (Article 1, Section 9)Ã Neither Congress nor the states can pass ex-post facto laws.Ã (Article 1, Section 9)Ã No law impairing the obligation of contracts may be passed by states.Ã (Article 1, Section 10)Ã No religious test or qualification for holding federal office is allowed. (Article 6)No titles of nobility would be allowed.Ã (Article 1, Section 9)Ã A Bill of Rights The framers at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 felt that these eight rights were necessary to protect the citizens of the United States. However, many individuals not present felt that the Constitution could not be ratified without the addition of a Bill of Rights. In fact, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson argued that not including the rights that would eventually be written into the first ten amendments to the Constitution was unconscionable. As Jefferson wrote to James Madison, the Father of the Constitution,,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"a bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular, and what no government should refuse, or rest on inference.Ã¢â¬ Ã Why Wasnt Freedom of Speech Included? The reason why many of the framers of the Constitution did not include rights such as freedom of speech and religion in the body of the Constitution was that they felt that listing out these rights would, in fact, restrict freedoms. In other words, there was a general belief that by enumerating specific rights guaranteed to citizens, the implication would be that these were granted by the government instead of being natural rights that all individuals should have from birth. Further, by specifically naming rights, this would, in turn, mean that those not specifically named would not be protected. Others including Alexander Hamilton felt that protecting rights should be done at the state instead of the federal level.Ã Madison, however, saw the importance of adding the Bill of Rights and wrote the amendments that would eventually be added in order to assure ratification by the states.